...Since 1 April 2009, American financial regulators have fined European banks 32 times totalling nearly $25 billion... On 30 June 2014, the French bank BNP Paribas, which ranks fourth in the world in terms of assets and second in France, agreed to pay US authorities a record $9-billion fine. The bank’s management is charged with helping its Sudanese, Iranian and Cuban clients carry out dollar transactions banned by the US sanctions regime. In the coming months, giants of European banking like the German Kommerzbank and Deutsche Bank, French Credit Agricole and Societe Generale, and Italian Unicredit, among others, could also be subject to penalties...
D.Sc. (Economics), Economist and the chairman of the S.F. Sharapov Russian Economic Society